Simon Marmion - Les Visions du Chevalier Tondal, 1475.
1. The Beast Acheron
2. The Torment of Murderers
3. The Torment of Unbelievers and Heretics
4. The Torment of the Proud - Valley of Burning Sulphur
5. The Torment of Thieves: Tondal Leads a Cow Across a Nail-studded Bridge
6. The House of Phristinus
7. The Torment of Unchaste Monks and Nuns
8. The Forge of Vulcan
9. The Gates of Hell and Lucifer
The Visions of the Knight Tondal or “Visio Tnugdali”, was written in Latin in the 12th century by an Irish monk named Marcus. It was the most popular and elaborate text in the medieval genre of visionary infernal literature and had been translated forty-three times into fifteen languages by the 15th century. It may have been part of the inspiration for Dante’s journey into Hell, Purgatory and Heaven.
It tells the story of a wealthy and errant Irish knight, whose soul goes on a journey through Hell and Paradise with an angel for a guide. As a result of his experience, Tondal is spiritually transformed and vows to lead a more pious life. Before Dante’s Divine Comedy, the story of Tondal was one of the most popular in a long tradition of visionary and moralizing literature.
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